Instructions for Authors     

The Chinese Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ChJAA) publishes original research papers and reviews on all branches of astronomy and astrophysics. Reviews are by invitation only. Important new results that require rapid published can be submitted as a Letter.

Authors who submit a paper are expected to be able to certify that the paper is original work,  has not been published before and is not being considered for publication elsewhere.

Papers should be written in grammatical English: authors who have doubts about this should ask a knowledgeable colleague to read a draft critically.

Papers can be typeset directly from the author's TeX or LaTeX file as an alternative to conventional typesetting. Authors are required to upload via email, FTP or web-based submitting system (under construction) the postscript (PS) or PDF file of the full paper including all figures and tables to the editor. Authors may use the 
ChJAA's macro class file
to prepare their manuscripts. 

Electronic submission is required via e-mail at < or  > or anonymous ftp, see details here).

Letters must be restricted in length to 5 printed pages.

The manuscripts should be submitted to:

ChJAA Editorial Office,
National Astronomical Observatories,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District,
Beijing 100012,
Telephone: +86 10 64853746; Fax: +86 10 64859720

      1.Requirements of papers
        1.1. Manuscript contents
        1.2. References
      2. Page proofs
      3. Offprints
      4. Macro packages
      5. Electronic submission


1.1 Manuscript Contents

Manuscripts should generally contain: title, author's name, address of author's institution, abstract, max. 6 key words, main text, acknowledgements, list of references, tables and figures. Figures can be submitted either as postscript files or as hard copies. Tables can be prepared in Latex format or sent as  hard copies.  The author should indicate the locations where the figures and tables should appear in the article. Manuscript pages should be numbered  consecutively, as are the figures and tables.

The title of the paper should be concise yet informative.

Authors and addresses
For every manuscript, all authors and all addresses should be listed.  Addresses should contain e-mail addresses where possible. A number should precede each address and the authors' names should be marked with the appropriate numerical  superscript(s).


Authors should provide an abstract normally of not more than 200 words. The abstract should be self-contained, summarizing concisely the content and conclusions of the paper.

Key words

A maximum of 6 key words should be given following the Abstract. These should be  selected from a list that is common to ApJ, A&A and MNRAS, and only key words that appear on the list are allowed.

Main Text
Manuscripts should be divided into numbered sections and subsections, starting with 
``1. INTRODUCTION''. Subsections should be numbered, e.g., 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, etc.; appendices with A, B, etc. All sections must have a short descriptive title.

The following expressions should always be abbreviated unless they come at the beginning of a sentence (e.g. Sect., Sects., Fig., Figs., Col., Cols.). Table is never abbreviated.

Abbreviations of concepts, methods, instruments, observatories, etc., may be used throughout the text but the full wording with the abbreviation in parentheses should be given once in the Abstract (if appropriate) and/or once at the first place of mention in the main text (usually in the Introduction).

Figures and tables 
Figures submitted to the Journal must be of very good quality to ensure accuracy and clarity in the final published copy, and should preferably be in postscript form.
Artwork should be in good focus, with clean, clear numbers and letters and  sharp black lines. Thin lines, particularly in figures requiring considerable reduction, should be avoided.

Line artwork
Authors are asked to bear in mind, when preparing their diagrams, the likely reduction  that will be needed when the figure is placed in the journal page. It is important  to ensure that the line thickness used will withstand a possibly significant  reduction in size. This applies to all aspects of the figure, but dotted and dot-dashed lines can cause  particular problems. Axis labelling and lettering, too,  should be sized  appropriately for the figure and its likely final size.  Labelling that is far too large for a figure can also be problematic, and may look very odd on the printed page. Unsuitable artwork will be referred back to the author, inevitably leading to delay in publication, and  authors will be charged for figures that have to be redrawn.

Tables published in the print version should be prepared using LaTeX. All tables  must be mentioned explicitly by number and appear in correct numerical order in  the body of the text. That is, Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4 must each be mentioned in the text at least once, and the first mention of Table 3 should not precede the first mention of Table 2.

Italic and boldface should be used appropriately to identify physical or  mathematical variables. In general, variables are set in light italic, vectors in boldface italic (no arrows).

Physical constants such as the speed of light, the Boltzmann constant, the Hubble constant and the solar mass are also set in light italic.

Differential d, complex i, exponential e, sin, cos, tan, log, etc., are Roman.

Sub/superscripts that are physical variables are italic, while those that are just labels are Roman (e.g. Ct, but Teff).

Equations should be punctuated as part of the sentence. Equations in appendices  should be numbered  (A1), (A2), (B1), etc.

Standard abbreviations for SI units (e.g., m, km, mm) or natural units (e.g., AU, pc, light-year) should be used. Expressions of rate, such as kilometers per second, Joules per square meter, etc., should always be set as, e.g., km s-1, not km/s;J m-2, not J/m2.

The SI-derived unit for energy is Joule (J), but the erg is the unit of energy often used by astronomers by international agreement; and the magnetic unit is  Tesla (T), but Gauss is still commonly used. Tesla (T) and Joule (J) are the  preferred unit for ChJAA, but Gauss and erg are acceptable so long as the international astronomers continue to use them.

Units should be in Roman and separated from the number by a ``$\backslash$,'' half-space -- e.g.  200\,keV.

The units of time are ms, s, min, h, d, yr, Gyr.

The units of distance are \AA,  nm, $\mu$m, mm, cm, m, km, AU(au), light-year, pc, kpc, Mpc.

The unit of arcseconds is arcsec when used to denote angular size or  separation (e.g. ``beamsize 12 arcsec'', ``30 arcsec west of the star''); use ``for positions (e.g.  Dec. 30\dg 29$'$ 23$''$) (similarly for arcminutes).

Avoid repeating units unnecessarily (e.g. ``1.3 and 2.6 mm'' rather than  ``1.3 mm and 2.6 mm'').

The unit of magnitudes is ``mag'', not superscript ``m''. 

Use the degree symbol ``\dgree'' except to denote e.g. areas, where deg2 may be  more appropriate (e.g. ``a survey area of 3 deg2''). 

``e.g., i.e., cf., etc.'', are Roman. Letters denoting wavebands (e.g., UBV) are 
set italic. Colour excess is set  as, e.g., E(B-V). Letters denoting orbital states are set Roman. Ionized species should be denoted by small capitals, preceded by  a thin space -- e.g., HeI; Computer software (e.g.,  CLOUDY -- {\sc cloudy}) should be in small capitals.  Satellite names should be in italic (e.g., Ginga, IRAS). The correct bracket order is {[( )]}. Acronyms and abbreviations should be spelt out at the first occurrence,  unless they are very well known.

Dates should be written in the order: year, month, and day; e.g.,  ``2000 January 1'', the month being written in full, except in tables, where the standard three-letter abbreviations for months are used without a period.

Figures and tables should be referred to as e.g., ``Fig. 1'' and ``Table 1'',  unless they are from another paper, in which case ``fig. 1'' and  ``table 1''  should be used.

1.2 References

Authors should check carefully that all references in the text appear in the  reference list, and vice versa; also that the dates and spelling of names are  consistent between the text and the reference list. It is the responsibility of authors to ensure the accuracy of their references.

In the references list, use no bold or italic, no commas after author surnames, and no ampersand  between the final two author names. Examples of correct styles for some common reference forms are given below.

Journal article
Lin W. P., B{\"o}rner G., Mo H. J., 2000,  MNRAS, 319, 517 

Author [Last name, First-name initials], Author, (no ampersand) Author, Year, Journal abbreviated title, Volume number, First page of article

 ``Letters'' are denoted by the prefix ``L'' on the page number  (e.g. ApJ, 279,  L23). 

Harwit M., 1998, Astrophysical Concepts, 3rd ed., Berlin: Springer

Author [Last name, First-name initials], Author, Year, Title, Edition, if any; City of publication: Publisher

Article or chapter in an edited collection
Huchra J. A., 1986, In:  E. W. Kolb et al., eds., 
Inner Space/Outer Space, Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 65

Author(s) [Last name, First-name initials], Year, ed., In:  Editors by first-name initials followed by last name, ed., Collection title, City of publication: Publisher, First page of article

Conference proceedings
Gunn J. E., Knapp G., 1993, In: B. T. Soifer, ed., ASP Conf. Ser. Vol. 43,  Sky Surveys.,  San Francisco: ASP, p. 267

Author(s) [Last name, First-name initials], Year, In:  Editors by first-name initials followed by last name, ed., Conference series title [ASP Conf. Ser., AIP Conf.  Proc., IAU Colloq., IAU Symp., etc.] and number, Volume title, City of publication: Publisher, First page of article

Smith A. B., 1999, preprint (astro-ph/9912345)

Author(s) [Last name, First-name initials], Year, preprint (preprint series and number)

Star catalogs
Hoffleit D., 1982, The Bright Star Catalogue, New Haven: Yale Univ. Obs.

Author(s) [Last name, First-name initials], Year, Catalog title, City of publication: Publisher

Private communications and papers in preparation
Papers in preparation and information obtained through private communications should be cited in the text but should not be included in the reference list.

For journal articles, list the short title of the periodical. IAU abbreviations should be used. The following are some acronyms used for frequently cited journals:
  A&A     Astronomy and Astrophysics 
  A&AS    Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series 
  AJ      Astronomical Journal 
  ApJ     Astrophysical Journal 
  ApJS    Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 
  Ap&SS   Astrophysics and Space Science 
  ARA&A   Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics
  Azh     Astronomicheskij Zhurnal 
  ChJAA   Chinese Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics 
  MNRAS   Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  PASJ    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan 
  PASP    Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 


Page proofs will be sent to the authors by e-mail (ps file) or by post. Proofs should be read carefully, particularly equations and other numerical matter. It is the responsibility of each author to check the proofs, reply to any queries, and notify the production team of any typographical errors. When updating the reference list, please be careful to update textual citations as well if the year has changed.


For each article, 30 offprints are supplied free of charge. Additional copies may be ordered at cost price.

4. Macro Packages for Manuscript Preparation

Your manuscript is hopefully to be LaTeX-prepared using the ChJAA macro packages:  the macro class chjaa.cls for LaTeX2e  following the sample file chjaa.tex. Unpack with WinZip (in Windows), pkunzip (in DOS) or unzip (in Linux) and read chjaa.txt first. Using the option 'referee' for submission before your paper is accepted.

  Click here to download the ChJAA macro package

5. Electronic-Submission Procedure:
Your full paper including all figures and tables must be compiled in a single PostScript (PS) file.  We suggest you compress the PS file whenever its size larger than 1 MB. The formats of .zip, .gz or .Z are acceptable. If the PS file is larger than 1 MB, you'd better submit via FTP.

1. via E-mail

   E-mail your full paper in a single (compressed) PS file as attachment to:
 or .

2. via anonymous FTP

This is the recommended way to submit a large-size file (>1 MB). Please use binary  mode to transfer your file if it is compressed or it is a Microsoft Word document. A PostScript file is an ASCII file. When your article is accepted for publication, you will be asked to supply all the files used in the accepted version of your  manuscript, including the text *.tex and figures *.eps.

(1). ftp
login: anonymous
password:  (input your full email address)
(2). ftp> cd /incoming -- upload directory
ftp> put -- upload a file


ftp> bin -- turn on binary mode
ftp> put  -- upload a compressed file )


ftp> ls -l zhao* -- check your transfer )
ftp> bye -- exit ftp 

(3). Send an email to the editor to confirm your submission and include your paper's abstract in ASCII format.



方  成  (南京大学天文系)   
汪景琇  (中科院国家天文台)

Deputy Editors

赵  刚  (中科院国家天文台)  
武向平  (中科院国家天文台) 
李  焱  (云南天文台)  
郭  新  (台湾中央研究院天文及天体物理研究所)

International Advisory Committee

Helmut A. Abt            (NOAO, USA)
Robert C. Kennicutt, Jr. (University of Arizona, USA)
T. Kiang         (County Wicklow, Ireland)
J. Lequeux       (Observatoire de Paris, France)
R. N. Manchester (Australia Telescope National Facility, Australia)
Eugene N. Parker (University of Chicago, USA)
Frank Shu        (National Tsing Hua University, Taibei)

Editorial Board (Scientific Editors) (2005-2008)

Name Institute or University E-mail
陈建生   中科院国家天文台, 北京大学天文学系  
崔向群  南京天文光学技术研究所   
戴子高  南京大学天文学系    
甘为群  南京紫金山天文台   
韩占文 云南天文台  
黄润乾  云南天文台  
叶永煊  Institute of Astronomy National Central University (台湾)   
景益鹏  上海天文台     
廖新浩  上海天文台    
刘晓为 北京大学天文系  
南仁东   中科院国家天文台    
史生才  南京紫金山天文台   
孙义燧  南京大学天文学系    
王挺贵 合肥中国科技大学天体物理中心  
杨  戟 南京紫金山天文台   
张可可 University Exeter, UK  
张双南 清华大学物理系  
郑广生   香港大学物理系  
周又元  合肥中国科技大学天体物理中心  
朱宗宏 北京师范大学天文学系  
邹振隆 中科院国家天文台  

Editorial Offices

赵复垣   中科院国家天文台 (
温亚媛   中科院国家天文台 (
赵景芝   中科院国家天文台 (;
江  涛   爱尔兰 Dunsink天文台(特聘英文编辑) (
周爱英   中科院国家天文台 (网络版编辑助理和技术支持)
林  隽   Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA (
张可可   School of Mathematical Sci., University of Exeter, UK (

About ChJAA:

Chinese Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ChJAA) 
(ISSN 1009-9271 / CN 11-4631/P)

ChJAA 是中国天文学会、中国科学院国家天文台于2001年1月在原中文《天体物理学报》基础上

ChJAA 的目标是办成一种高学术水平、有中国自主知识产权的英文天文学国际学术期刊。

ChJAA 坚持只发表原创性研究成果。设"特邀综述"、"研究快报"和"研究论文"等栏目,论文涉及

2005年 ChJAA 被美国ISI的SCI收录,同时还收录于Science Research Alert 和CC/PC&ES 中。
期刊(光盘版)》( )。ChJAA属中国学术期刊综合评价

The Chinese Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ChJAA) publishes original research papers 
and reviews on all branches of astronomy and astrophysics, especially in the areas of 
large-scale structure of universe, formation and evolution of galaxies, high-energy and 
cataclysmic processes in astrophysics, formation and evolution of stars, solar magnetic 
activity and heliogeospace environment, astrogeodynamics, dynamics of celestial bodies in 
the solar system and artificial bodies, space observation and exploration, new astronomical 
techniques and methods.

© Copyright 2001-2008 The National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences.
All rights reserved. This Journal or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form or 
by any means without written permission from the Copyright owner.


Authors should select keywords for their manuscripts using the list given below.

No more than six keywords should be given (and if keywords are used for individual stars, galaxies, etc., each object normally counts as one keyword). The overall categories (which are capitalized) should not be included. Also, do not include any part of a keyword that is in parentheses: thus, (stars:) binaries (including multiple): close should be given as binaries: close.

The keywords should appear following the abstract, in alphabetical order, each separated by "---" as in the following example:
Keywords: Cepheids --- galaxies: distances and redshifts --- galaxies: individual (M100, NGC 4321) --- stars: early type
Keywords such as galaxies: individual (..., ...) should include the individual names in parentheses, as indicated above. The list below is currently used in ApJ, A&A, and MNRAS.



editorials, notices
errata, addenda
extraterrestrial intelligence
history and philosophy of astronomy
obituaries, biographies
sociology of astronomy



acceleration of particles
accretion, accretion disks
atomic data
atomic processes
black hole physics
dense matter
elementary particles
equation of state
gravitational lensing
gravitational waves
line: formation
line: identification
line: profiles
magnetic fields
(magnetohydrodynamics:) MHD
molecular data
molecular processes
nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances
radiation mechanisms: general
radiation mechanisms: non-thermal
radiation mechanisms: thermal
radiative transfer
shock waves
stellar dynamics



atmospheric effects
celestial mechanics
space vehicles
instrumentation: adaptive optics
instrumentation: detectors
instrumentation: high angular resolution
instrumentation: interferometers
instrumentation: miscellaneous
instrumentation: photometers
instrumentation: polarimeters
instrumentation: spectrographs
methods: analytical
methods: data analysis
methods: laboratory
methods: miscellaneous
methods: N-body simulations
methods: numerical
methods: statistical
site testing
space vehicles: instruments
techniques: high angular resolution
techniques: image processing
techniques: interferometric
techniques: miscellaneous
techniques: photometric
techniques: polarimetric
techniques: radar astronomy
techniques: radial velocities
techniques: spectroscopic



astronomical data bases: miscellaneous



reference systems



Sun: abundances
Sun: activity
Sun: atmospheric motions
Sun: atmosphere
Sun: chromosphere
Sun: corona
Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs)
Sun: evolution
Sun: faculae, plages
Sun: filaments
Sun: flares
Sun: fundamental parameters
Sun: general
Sun: granulation
Sun: helioseismology
Sun: infrared
Sun: interior
Sun: magnetic fields
Sun: oscillations
Sun: particle emission
Sun: photosphere
Sun: prominences
Sun: radio radiation
Sun: rotation
(Sun:) solar-terrestrial relations
(Sun:) solar wind
(Sun:) sunspots
Sun: transition region
Sun: UV radiation
Sun: X-rays, gamma rays



comets: general
comets: individual (..., ...)
interplanetary medium
Kuiper Belt
meteors, meteoroids
minor planets, asteroids
Oort Cloud
planets: rings
planets and satellites: formation
planets and satellites: general
planets and satellites: individual (alphabetic order)
solar system: formation
solar system: general



stars: abundances
stars: activity
stars: AGB and post-AGB
stars: atmospheres
(stars:) binaries (including multiple): close
(stars:) binaries: eclipsing
(stars:) binaries: general
(stars:) binaries: symbiotic
(stars:) binaries: spectroscopic
(stars:) binaries: visual
(stars:) blue stragglers
stars: carbon
stars: chemically peculiar
stars: chromospheres
(stars:) circumstellar matter
stars: coronae
stars: distances
stars: dwarf novae
stars: early-type
stars: emission-line, Be
stars: evolution
stars: flare
stars: formation
stars: fundamental parameters (classification, colors, luminosities, masses, radii, temperatures, etc.)
stars: general
(stars:) Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
stars: horizontal-branch
stars: imaging
stars: individual (..., ...)
stars: interiors
stars: kinematics
stars: late-type
stars: low-mass, brown dwarfs
stars: luminosity function, mass function
stars: magnetic fields
stars: mass loss
stars: neutron
(stars:) novae, cataclysmic variables
stars: oscillations (including pulsations)
(stars:) planetary systems
(stars:) planetary systems: formation
(stars:) planetary systems: protoplanetary disks
stars: Population II
stars: pre-main sequence
(stars:) pulsars: general
(stars:) pulsars: individual (..., ...)
stars: rotation
stars: spots
stars: statistics
(stars:) subdwarfs
(stars:) supergiants
(stars:) supernovae: general
(stars:) supernovae: individual (..., ...)
stars: winds, outflows
(stars: variables:) Cepheids
(stars: variables:) delta Scuti
stars: variables: other
(stars:) white dwarfs
stars: Wolf-Rayet



ISM: abundances
ISM: atoms
ISM: bubbles
ISM: clouds
(ISM:) cosmic rays
(ISM:) dust, extinction
ISM: evolution
ISM: general
ISM: globules
ISM: Herbig-Haro objects
(ISM:) HII regions
ISM: individual (..., ...) (except planetary nebulae)
ISM: jets and outflows
ISM: kinematics and dynamics
ISM: lines and bands
ISM: magnetic fields
ISM: molecules
(ISM:) planetary nebulae: general
(ISM:) planetary nebulae: individual (..., ...)
(ISM:) reflection nebulae
ISM: structure
(ISM:) supernova remnants



Galaxy: abundances
Galaxy: bulge
Galaxy: center
Galaxy: disk
Galaxy: evolution
Galaxy: formation
Galaxy: fundamental parameters
Galaxy: general
(Galaxy:) globular clusters: general
(Galaxy:) globular clusters: individual (..., ...)
Galaxy: halo
Galaxy: kinematics and dynamics
Galaxy: nucleus
(Galaxy:) open clusters and associations: general
(Galaxy:) open clusters and associations: individual (..., ...)
(Galaxy:) solar neighborhood
Galaxy: stellar content
Galaxy: structure



galaxies: abundances
galaxies: active
(galaxies:) BL Lacertae objects: general
(galaxies:) BL Lacertae objects: individual (..., ...)
galaxies: bulges
galaxies: clusters: general
galaxies: clusters: individual (..., ...)
galaxies: star clusters
(galaxies:) cooling flows
galaxies: distances and redshifts
galaxies: dwarf
galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD
galaxies: evolution
galaxies: formation
galaxies: fundamental parameters (classification, colors, luminosities, masses, radii, etc.)
galaxies: general
galaxies: halos
galaxies: high-redshift
galaxies: individual (..., ...)
galaxies: interactions
(galaxies:) intergalactic medium
galaxies: ISM
galaxies: irregular
galaxies: jets
galaxies: kinematics and dynamics
(galaxies:) Local Group
galaxies: luminosity function, mass function
(galaxies:) Magellanic Clouds
galaxies: magnetic fields
galaxies: nuclei
galaxies: peculiar
galaxies: photometry
(galaxies:) quasars: absorption lines
(galaxies:) quasars: emission lines
(galaxies:) quasars: general
(galaxies:) quasars: individual (..., ...)
galaxies: Seyfert
galaxies: spiral
galaxies: starburst
galaxies: star clusters
galaxies: statistics
galaxies: stellar content
galaxies: structure



(cosmology:) cosmic microwave background
(cosmology:) cosmological parameters
cosmology: miscellaneous
cosmology: observations
cosmology: theory
(cosmology:) dark matter
(cosmology:) diffuse radiation
(cosmology:) distance scale
(cosmology:) early universe
(cosmology:) large-scale structure of universe



gamma rays: bursts
gamma rays: observations
gamma rays: theory
infrared: galaxies
infrared: general
infrared: ISM
infrared: solar system
infrared: stars
radio continuum: galaxies
radio continuum: general
radio continuum: ISM
radio continuum: solar system
radio continuum: stars
radio lines: galaxies
radio lines: general
radio lines: ISM
radio lines: solar system
radio lines: stars
ultraviolet: galaxies
ultraviolet: general
ultraviolet: ISM
ultraviolet: solar system
ultraviolet: stars
X-rays: binaries
X-rays: bursts
X-rays: diffuse background
X-rays: galaxies
X-rays: galaxies: clusters
X-rays: general
X-rays: individual (..., ...)
X-rays: ISM
X-rays: stars


ChJAA 2008 Subscription Rates

The annual subscription price for foreign Institutions is $240 and for individuals' 
personal use  is $90 (single issue price: $15), including postage and handling. 
If you prefer, you may send your order with payment to:

ChJAA Editorial Office,
National Astronomical Observatories,  
Chinese Academy of Sciences, 
20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District,
Beijing 100012, 

2008 国内定价:每期50元, 全年300元(人民币)。邮发代号: 2-257

Telephone: +86 10 64853746; Fax: +86 10 64859720

© Copyright 2001-2008 The National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences.
All rights reserved. This Journal or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form or 
by any means without written permission from the Copyright owner.